Two type of deposits dominate the lithium sector. One is hard rock as found in Australia, where spodumene concentrates are produced. The other type is brine, mostly found in Chile and Argentina, but also in the US. China has both.
Lithium is a valuable mineral, neccessary for Li-ion battery production and used commerically in various ways.
Wood Mackenzie estimates the increase in global lithium demand to be driven by electric vehicles, portable electronics and energy storage systems.